Many pupils and students have no idea how to effectively memorize the necessary information and, therefore, use an approach that is commonly called cramming. To better understand and remember the details, the same text is read several times. Anyone who has used this method in the school, or, unfortunately, continues to be used, and as an adult, know its main drawbacks: quickly loses interest, dissipated attention, the details are stored poorly.
Why is this happening and how to solve this problem? Is it possible to learn and memorize easily all that is necessary?
To answer the first question it is necessary to know which memory phases involved in the learning process. The fact that the problems in education, as well as other problems of life, people often face because he did not know the details of the memory device. To their memory – a memory, and that’s it. Not everyone knows that memorizing – it is a three-phase process, and each of these phases works one way or another.
So what kind of memory phase?
Process memory is divided into three phases : the first is called the touch, the second – and third short-term – long-term memory.
Sensory memory is activated when, for example, we have something to enumerate . This memory can be visual, auditory, and kinesthetic happens (tactile), olfactory (smell) and gustatory (taste). It lasts a few minutes and serve to our brain to realize that he had seen something. In this phase, we can not yet speak of “remembering” that needs to be considered material unlearned.
Short-term memory lasts a few minutes, and “data processing” begins in this period. At this time, it becomes clear, “what is at stake” in the text that we read (integration). That’s when all of the information we choose to “critical” (there is selection), because the brain does not remember the details of the order. Remember only the key markers, which include the process of “remembering.” It was then that our mind or is preparing to process deviations (forgetting) of unimportant facts or selects the information that we consider important for the long-term memory. It should be understood that the meaning of this phase of memory – not conservation, and the data selection and the alignment of the connections between them.
Long-term memory has no time limits, and it is thanks to her information remains (imprinted). Memory problems are observed in the early phase of the long-term memory. Up to this point our learning takes place more or less normally. Read, understand, and there is a “feel” of familiar material. However, when we try to repeat the “learned” is that we remember about 40%, or even less. This is especially noticeable at law students, which is very interesting to read all the “first time”, as they say, but the problem arises when it is necessary to remember this information.
So what’s the problem? The fact that we are in the process of memorizing stop on the second phase, and our teaching remains at the level of “understanding”. We can not cross the bridge long-term memory, and, oddly enough, to remember not to use memorization techniques, and use strategies for obtaining and processing information, and the brain “chooses” to remember something or not.
Why do we do so? Because after we have “understood” read the text, for 4-5 minutes, we can very well remember it – short-term memory of up to 8 minutes. We were so pleased with the feeling that we decide if all remember and turn to another material or finish do. And then there is a problem. If we imagine a bridge between short-term and long-term memory, a bridge, passing through which we provide ourselves and the memory, the effective recollection, it is passed to recognize that we are through this bridge does not pass, and turn around and go back to the beginning.
What happens then?
We do not deliberately passed through the “memory bridge” the mind busy with things that are important to remember. The information that is entered in the brain, mainly abstract: characters, special terms, analyzes and transfers. It is not that the brain prefers to do with the real objects, – “play, sleep and food”, so the brain decides that all these data is possible to lay down in a basket. We forget, but still not quite themselves can not remember, but it is necessary to look into the book, and we confidently assert that all is now remembered.
And what will happen after?
With no important data, we are experiencing a moment of frustration or in your room, or in the classroom or auditorium, where it is necessary to demonstrate their knowledge. After the disappointment and after themselves spare, we go back to the book again repeat all of the above: read, reach the “bridge” between short-term and long-term memory, and again does not pass this bridge, though we expect that, at the behest of some higher power, memory itself “decides” what information should be stored. You can bet.
What should be done to save the information in long-term memory?
To protect the data and to maintain access to them, you need as often as possible to use the following methods:
Separate studies in pieces (chunking) – held the attention of the average from 30 to 180 seconds, so read no more than three consecutive minutes. Then stop, think, write, underline.
Visualize the concepts that we are trying to remember. The most important thing we must “see” an imaginary “mental screen”. If it is an abstract concept, create images for them, for example, a memory – an elephant, the word “concept” – the brain, etc.
Tie different concepts with the help of associations (very good in this situation help cognitive maps, visualization and “cutting» (chunking), which is now widely used around the world, and everywhere from schools to large corporations.
Repeat, in accordance with the memory cycles. Be sure to repeat the small blocks, without looking at the source (book, or synopsis). The most important cycle of repetition – a repetition after 24 hours. If at this time you do not repeat the learned, then forget 70-80% of information, ie, You can not be repeated without a “spying”.
Igor Rakic, founder of the intellectual abilities of school