When we hear the phrase “farm product”, it often seems to us an idyllic picture: meadow, where cows, near the meadow hut log, in the yard walking chickens – grains peck, on the porch is a farmer with a beard, that these chickens and cows She knows by name … But is it really? What product can actually be called a farm? Says Ivan Lakhmetkina, director of the farm shop “Lunch with no worries.”
In fact, a clear definition of an agricultural product exists. Because the farm – this grandmother, who has lived 10 chickens, and the family farm, where a dozen or two different animals, and large enterprises, where the number of cattle in the thousands, tens of thousands. In principle, all this farm.

From my point of view, not farm production becomes when its scope excludes the control of one man. For example, when the number of chickens exceeds a certain threshold, in order to prevent epidemics, disease and somehow monitor the quality of the birds can start giving antibiotics preventively. And in the case of a mini-farm owner – employee or directly interested in the case and not merely an abstract man who made an injection and left – the patient will notice a turkey, accordingly, be able to isolate and treat. In large enterprises control over this particular.

I think farming food – is, first of all, the story of the origin of the product. When the seller may, at each position to say who and what made this product, when he traveled everywhere in the workplace, and even where there is no time to visit, received enough information from the manufacturer.

The farm products are not different from the farm?

We organize every Thursday workshops where I tell what the beef industry is different from the farm. Industrial beef – is a certain breed that is gaining more weight, but it is less tasty. And this can be understood only by trying.

What makes chicken, which are sold in our network and in any store? Firstly, color. Chicken from the supermarket more pink, more smooth. With the known persistence can be found in the Internet technology, the way in which they cleaned, bleached and syringes. This technology is absolutely permissible. No harmful substances as such is not there. But, for example, the same carrageenan used as a gelling element holds a chicken to 30 and in meat – up to 80% moisture. Therefore, buying cheaper chicken in the store, when you get her frying of pure meat for at least 30% less.

But, unfortunately, in our current reality, the speed is more important than quality. And a man running past the home store walking distance, it’s easier not to bother, and to cast a certain product and run on. This is a major disaster. To build an understanding of how to eat, it is necessary first to grasp this.

By what criteria do you choose a farm? How to decide which product gets to the store shelf?

To begin with themselves try. When a manufacturer comes to us, we, first of all, ask him a question: what is your product different from others? Each product must be a taste of it, this product must be tasty, it should have some kind of history. And if this story has been developed for some time – it is certainly a figure of farmer, manual labor, Quality Score.
Photo by Anna Danilova
For most people, the price in the choice of products is decisive, and the prices of farm products are generally higher. But they are above, not because farmers are angry and want to cash in on people. Simple manual labor always more expensive than industrial production.

Take the production of pelmeni. We make dumplings by hand. And the dough and filling. We use a meat grinder or chop the meat with a knife. The minimum cost of the cheapest machines for the production of ravioli – 100-150 thousand rubles. To be able to fill up the flour, beef block, and then the machine start to mold so-so quality of the dumplings. Note, there is no sale of factory ravioli of duck or rabbit – mostly they are made of beef and pork. This is because large machines are designed to work exclusively with the meat frozen block. And no duck or rabbit do not frost.

Our colleagues have had a history of: people come with large-scale production, seeing how they make dumplings, and say, “No bone meal or egg powder? Yes, you will go broke! We have the cost of a kilogram of pelmeni – 20 rubles. ” That’s all!

Or take the cheese. For the production of semi-hard type cheese Gouda required 11-12 liters of whole milk, and certain microbiological parameters. If you buy small wholesale milk, it will cost 35-50 rubles per liter. Multiply by 12, we get 600 rubles – is the cost of raw materials. Plus the work, plus the enzyme plus three months in a refrigerator at a certain temperature and humidity. A refrigerator – it is a very expensive thing, because “eat” a lot of electricity. Plus Logistics, plus expenses. And count how many in such a case should cost cheese?

Why is this cheese in the store costs 400 rubles? Palm kernel oil. Absolutely harmless to the body, but on one condition. The fact is that in our legislation, as far as I remember, there is no agreed international differences between food and industrial oils. And taste is not determined. Maintenance is cheaper. And if we talk about business, the more effective to take college – harm to his probation has not been proved – “bubbled” it in the cheese, which is sometimes entirely without milk, and sell for 300 rubles.

It is impossible to control?

How? Now to come to the production of a test, it is necessary to warn about it in advance. Who prevents switch tube?

I think this is different and farm products from industrial production. You need to know the history of the product, understand that it internally, how and why. And still need to make it tasty, but the taste, of course, is a subjective thing. Like love: you know what it is and what it is, you can not explain.

Farm products are often positioned as environmentally friendly. But in fact this is also quite vague concept, because there is no system of certification of organic products in Russia.

Yes. And it is unlikely to be.

And what do you mean by the concept of eco-friendly?

We from our suppliers, in any case, require a certificate. Although I realize that a piece of paper – a conditional thing. Although a piece of meat stuck to the stamps, it does not guarantee … Somewhere in this chain, “a piece of meat and a piece of paper” may burst.

We usually come to our producers. Look, how they work, what next production if the farmer some extra money … Although the uses, for example, growth stimulants, with the farmer’s point of view – something unfavorable. Not the scale. They are expensive.

Photo by Anna Danilova
Unscrupulous suppliers we calculate very quickly. Those who violate our demands, we stop working.

Proposals are now quite a lot. Many people are “hit” in farming, although weakly imagined what it is. And I think that it’s fast. In fact, the planning horizon in agriculture so far! The land will yield a good harvest under certain conditions. These conditions are such that there should be a crop rotation, Semi-or at least chetyrehpole. Sunflower on the same field should come in the seventh year, and it is better on the tenth, or he greatly impoverishes the ground. And in the regions and three years of sunflower grown in the same field. And the earth after that will not give birth to 20 years, as it is neither fertilize.

Speaking of fertilizers. Now in vogue natural fertilizers, humus, and so on. That’s a moot point. As a chemist, I can say that it requires a very long experience serious observation and serious analysis.

I recently had a conversation with a representative of a major food industry, who said that if the milk spoils quickly – it’s a sign that it is dirty, and such milk should not drink. And it is necessary to buy milk, which is stored for a long time, because it is safe. What do you think about it?

No, I can not agree. If we consider the issue from the perspective of biochemistry, can be viewed according to the standards GOST – unpasteurised milk lives 72 hours. And to say that it is more dangerous … What is more dangerous? Yes, pasteurization kills pathogenic microbes. Yes, maybe there staph or something else. So there must be a story of each supplier, and even each bottle.

We had a case: the milk was brought. Suddenly, buyers returned to: collect the milk, it is bitter. After all, why do we ask the customer feedback? In order to understand who and why we put the defective product. We call Provisioner. Still do not have time to ask anything, she says: “I know all about it, bring it back.” I ask what happened? “Yes, my husband got drunk yesterday, not follow, the cow went into wormwood.”

In fact, everything is simple. But if we do not know where the milk, if no name, which goes in the flow chain, it is impossible to understand. Therefore, it is pasteurized pre-emptively, as in this case it is necessary to completely eliminate the human factor. And in our case, on the contrary, the human factor is crucial. And this is the difference between the large-scale production, and what is being done by hand. It’s complicated. I can not even call it a business.

The most difficult question for the farmer – it is logistics. Many do not you bring, and little – it’s expensive. When we ask whether it is possible to make a network of farm shops, I just say “no.” The network can not be done. Because the logistics of it all “perishable” does not allow to insert here some middle ground that would be as interested in quality. And to deliver on time, some products are also very problematic. Now few people remember: What used to be a shelf life of at lemonade “Pinocchio”? No one knows. Now, in my opinion, not even the question of storage lemonades term. So, have a lemonade “Pinocchio” storage period was 7 days, have a beer – 10. This is an indication that the natural product deteriorates quickly.

If the product has a certain shelf life, this can be achieved in several ways: either by heat treatment or the addition of any preservatives or antibiotics. All this may not greatly alter the taste, but it certainly does not add any benefit.

But it is necessary to share the country’s security and the production of natural products. In large producers their tasks. For example, the country is now completely own production of poultry and pork – and it’s great. Because if, God forbid, the war, the borders are closed, and the meat will be. It’s pure politics.

And if a person goes to the market or to the fair weekend, to ak him to choose foods? It is clear that it can not verify 100%, but the all- same? My mother in law had a history: it is a very long time bought cheese, which my grandmother next to the market to sell. Grandmothers in headscarves, cottage cheese in cheesecloth, and in-law was sure that this is the real village grandmothers with real cheese. And then she was told that this factory cheese from the tank, packed in gauze, grandmothers those hired for the money, and they are under the guise of his cottage cheese are all sold. How not to run into such a deception?

There is some kind of blueprint. I am very afraid to give advice here. It’s a question of where we started: what is meant by farm products. In our case it is a story that we can tell little about each product. Because we have learned that the certificate issue is important, but in fact it never guarantees nothing in our country.

Good product – a combination of quality, taste and price, not least because when the product is sold very cheaply, the question is why. It does not happen.

As for the weekend fairs … Yes, there are farmers. With some we know, they were trying to work with us. But part of the products they do not own. What they bring, still passes through the base. I here there is some inner confidence. Farming today is, and tomorrow he will not come. And where to find it?

And yet, we’re talking about, that you have, for example, a chicken of a different color …

No, this is not a criterion. The chicken can be rubbed something, it turns yellow. Enter in the diet of corn, and it will turn yellow.

For some time we have been supplying eggs to restaurants the same network. The menu was a farm eggs, and they had a requirement: you need to egg was orange. You know that orange color is achieved 7 days feed additives? No, man stereotype again is orange, it is farming. So it is with chicken. But I hope that soon the number of educated people will increase.

You know, find a place where you can buy a guaranteed good food – it’s work.

I believe that, ideally, should be as early as when they said that “it is a bun from Filippov,” and no certificate is not required. Ideally it should be either a provider or a brand that you trust and which you can check.

For example, we are still not able to find a supplier of fish. Chilled fish in Moscow, as such, no. Basically. A-priory. When they say that bringing in air from abroad, from Kamchatka … I was on the Kamchatka Peninsula. And the fish there is fundamentally different from the one that is sold here, and the price for it at times higher than in Moscow. It is again a question of logistics and origin of the product. The ship, which goes to the sea and the network engages a fish does not know how he is now hooked: ton, half-ton, 5 ton … to stick to the coast for the sake of half a ton of it does not make sense, chilled fish for a long time does not lie. The easiest way out: the fish immediately frozen, and as soon as it will be typed by 20 tons (container), then stick to some of the floating barge and thus pass on. That fish that once frozen, uneven lies: somewhere “vmyatenkaya” somewhere a little “Kryven’ka”. Because there was a shock freezing. If the fish is rovnenko, one to one, it means it is already slightly thawed … This does not mean that it immediately became the worse. The question is, how it thawed and what it has done.

Where do you see the benefits of farm products? After all, the choice of farm products need to spend not only money but also time. Buy frozen semi-finished product – much faster and cheaper …

The issue price can very easily be considered in terms of the amount of consumed products. If the store is easily sour milk you can drink half a liter, then our stewed in the oven, eat 150 grams – and is already full. Not to mention the other benefits of a natural product. Changing the power profile. It is very important.

We had a case. Mom comes in and says, I have your boy poisoned cheese. We started to figure out: it turned out, the boy ate half a kilogram of cheese. I say, you know what the body with so many natural protein simply can not cope! Curd this – entirely different satiety. And chicken. Eat one leg – and you’re hungry. If you want to spend an experiment for yourself: shopping fry chicken and farming. And compare.

Semi-finished products, and we have. And they are much tastier and easier. We are now looking for those formats, which would allow a person to spend not much time for cooking. Those steaks you can fry for 4 minutes. We have a so-called alternative steaks, which taught us to cut one of the few specialists in this unique case Petya Pavlovich. For me, in meat space opened. After the output of premium steaks from carcasses – all these ribeye, filet mignon – only 10-15%. And in order to optimize consumption, the American Association of ranchers worked more than 16 thousand carcasses found and another 9 steaks, each of which has its own texture, its taste. Even from the flank, which is generally considered to be meat cutlet, steaks can be cut 3. And it is usually given doggies. We performed as a master class. We pass by the grandmother and amazed: that flank can be fried? We had fried her piece, and she could not believe it: “It’s so delicious! I never knew that flank you can eat! “.

But people were not afraid to try, it is necessary to foster a culture of consumption. And that is the task of the state as well. This should be promoted. Why do we do festivals, master classes? People need to talk, to show, to give a try. Scope of taste is in the sensory field. And it can not be formalized and say do so, make commercials.

How to convince a person to spend more time to cook? Well, maybe the fact that it tastes good! A person should try and see that there is a difference. Older people sometimes say, ‘Oh, this tastes like my grandmother in the village. ” But they have to understand that you can get a taste of this in the city.

And as all – still choose a natural product in the carrier on the second cosmic speed metropolis ?

I can only give general recommendations, which are already partially sounded.

With the seller in any case, the history of the relationship should be. First you have to try the product taste. Then ask him (product) the origin and details that are known only to people who understand the mechanics of the process (for example, how much you have chicken / cow / turkeys on the farm, where farming is how often you come to them here to sell, and some fat of your cheese, etc.).

I do not give a ready check scheme. It can not exist in principle, but when you have many years to come in the same farm shop or to one and the same person in the market, you will be quite a lot to know about it, just as he did for you, and it will They tend to understand your preferences and wishes. This is the hard way, but when you find the real farmers such – you will enjoy and use.

Interview Alain Khmilevskaya