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Why aging skin, some moles are dangerous, than to treat acne, cellulite and spider veins, and why it makes no sense to spend money on expensive cosmetics, “Matrona” said Donetsk Svetlana V. , deputy chief doctor of aesthetic medicine clinic “Lege Artis”, cosmetologist, dermatologist, Candidate of Medical Sciences.

Donetsk Svetlana V.
Donetsk Svetlana V.
Protects the skin from the SUN TO CONSTANTLY

Summer is not over, and the topic of tanning continues to be relevant. Therefore, the first question is whether to sunbathe really harmful? Or is it necessary to sometimes happen on the sun – to produce vitamin the D , for example?

Sunbathing in the sun in any way harmful, because the main factor of age-related changes – the process of photoaging, caused by the adverse effects of UV rays on the skin. Therefore, if we want our skin to stay young as long as possible, it is impossible to sunbathe categorically in the sun.

Indeed, under the influence of ultraviolet light to produce vitamin D. But it is produced exactly as long as we do not have a look of a tan. Therefore, especially tanning is not necessary, it is enough to be outdoors in the shade. UV will still fall on the skin, but in this case the vitamin D will be generated continuously for a period of time. And, of course, it is necessary to use sunscreen. Any chemical protection factor, there is a mechanical protection factor. And there is a part of the biological protection – antioxidants.
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And what better to use – chemical or mechanical means of protection?

Better when these agents are used together. The latest trend – be applied under any sunscreen product with vitamin C, because it blocks the formation of abnormal melanin – is the one that leads to pigmentation spots, freckles. And it gives protection SPF 20 order to ensure that you have caused. That is, under the sunscreen you apply either serum or cream with vitamin C, and the more concentrated the better.

It is an action for a holiday in the sea? Or, in the city it is worth doing every day?

Vitamin C is useful in any case. And the sea and the city, both in winter and summer. In the city, by the way, very high reflective activity – due to the fact that a lot of reflective surfaces – mirrors, glass. So in Moscow UV level is Mediterranean. But if you run so far only to the car and then to evening are in the office, then spend the day under heavy sunscreen, your skin will not be pleased. In this case it is enough vitamin C.

If you go for a walk in the park, or during the day you walk a lot or spend a weekend out of town, you definitely need sunscreen. And if you spend a certain course of procedures related to the fact that the photosensitivity of the skin increases, such as resurfacing or peels, the sunscreen is needed at each exit to the street. But usually, the doctor warns about this.

Do I need a skin protection from the sun in the winter?

The “dark” months – from October to December, when the sun may not be enough to be antioxidants – and they protect from harmful substances, and those of small doses of ultraviolet light that the skin still gets.

And in January, in central Russia, as a rule, there is an active sun. We did, of course, are looking forward to, but it is very aggressive. So if you spend time in the air, it is very desirable at this time to use sunscreen with at least a little protection factor. The spring sun is considered to be even more active because it has a very high angle of incidence. And in the autumn – more soft, it is less warm.

And if suddenly begins fotodermatit, which in humans has never happened before? With what it can be connected?

This may be an indication of the general slagging organism. It is believed that fotodermatit always associated with the state of health of the liver. So it is advisable to go to the doctor to check the work of this body.

In addition, the sun is very active – lots of ozone holes, and therefore the man who once got a burn may occur sensitization – the formation of antibodies to the effects of ultraviolet radiation. The only way of treatment – Avoid direct UV to the skin for a long time, approximately two to three years. Do not sunbathe, permanently protect the skin, and then fotodermatit may come to naught. Provided that no other medical problems.

How to monitor the moles? Enough self-examination or it is necessary to visit a doctor?

Now in our country there is a whole campaign about the fact that it is necessary to see a doctor and be examined, and held annually in May, the so-called Day of the diagnosis of melanoma. On that day, anyone who is worried about their tumors on the skin, can call the hotline and send it to the clinic. All involved in the campaign for the clinic that day free take patients, doctors carry out inspections, assess the risks. In one case, in our clinic revealed melanoma.

Melanoma – a malignant tumor of the skin, the disease, which quickly leads to metastasis and extremely difficult to treat. It can be reborn from the so-called dysplastic nevus, ie birthmarks. Often it does not make much of an impression, and tend to scare people at all those moles that are really dangerous!

And what are the dangers?

Dangerous – flat, with irregular borders, fuzzy color, colorful. And those who give any symptoms, they can be scratched, grow, bleed.

But in itself the appearance of moles – it is not dangerous? Or any new mole in the adult should alert?

No, this in itself is not dangerous. As a rule, it is genetically determined problems. For example, the Pope was a seborrheic keratosis, and the child into adulthood begins to develop the same. Develop or not develop – it depends on the general mood of immunity. It is very important hormones. Pregnancy, childbirth provoke an increase in the number of moles. Extinction hormonal levels can also depress the immune system and cause tumors growth. There are also types of papilloma tumors – they are caused by a virus.

If there is a mole, in any case it is better to see a doctor. There is the so-called dysplastic nevus syndrome – when a person has a few such nevi on the skin, and at the initial examination by a doctor there are concerns about their future. In this case, take photos, birthmarks measure, signed by all sizes and once a year is compared. Because patients often can not objectively evaluate the picture, does not understand this growing mole or not.

And how better to remove moles? Surgically followed by histology or can, for example, the laser?

You can remove the laser if it is a normal nevus. First, the mole should look Dermatooncology and give its opinion. After that it can be removed and a dermatologist, surgeon and – according to the opinion, which gave Dermatooncology. If he wrote that it was a normal nevus, it can be removed by laser within healthy tissues. The laser, by the way, is a very good method, because they can remove the tumor layer by layer.

Surgical excision is required in case there are any suspicions. In this case, it is taken over the fabric. And there are places where it is easier to remove surgically and pull the skin to thin linear scar was, than to burn with a laser. Particularly if large mole, for example, on the head.

Than to treat eczema, acne and cellulite

Psoriasis – a skin disease, which is now quite often occurs. How to live with it whether the hope is that they will find some methods to deal with this disease?

Indeed, on average, every tenth person has psoriasis. This can be psoriasis of the scalp or the ear canal. It looks like it’s peeling, people think that they have dandruff and can be treated by a lifetime of it. But it is another disease.

Predisposition to psoriasis is genetically determined, and triggering factor typically is stress. Development depends on the background of stress, and a way of life in the future. Alleviate psoriasis can be, leading a very regular life. Firstly, you need to take care of domestic tranquility. Second, a healthy lifestyle is important – and, above all, a healthy diet as psoriasis responds to stress the nature of the food. First of all, alcohol, and large amounts of fatty, fried, spicy food can also cause a reaction. Important form of psoriasis – winter or summer. Depending on that may very well help bathing in the Dead Sea, some thermal water, radon baths, a sea bath. Many enough to go once a year to the resort and then a year to live quietly.

But this non-specific treatment. As for drugs – a lot of them. All of them are in the relative degree of effective, but today it is best proven drugs retinoic acid from the group of retinoids. The fact that in psoriasis greatly increased rate of cell division – a 27-30 fold compared with the norm. The foci of the disease, and because the skin constantly peels off, as there is a continuous cell division. A retinoids inhibit this process. Generally, this magic wand for very many chronic severe diseases. Another thing is that they are expensive and difficult to use. But this promising area of treatment.

However, the old-school doctors say that if a person has been diagnosed with a primary psoriasis, it is necessary to touch as little as possible, that is treated to a minimum. The less you touch, the less he then appears. It is better to try to cure psoriasis through lifestyle before starting medication. Interestingly, the dermal hospitals aggravation of the disease is always observed on Mondays, after patients were off.

Eczema and atopic dermatitis are also linked in the first place, a way of life? Can it be said that if the skin reaction appears after the stress – this is atopic dermatitis?

Neurodermatitis – a chronic disease. It is not any skin reaction to stress is neurodermatitis.

This usually manifests in childhood, when children begin to suffer the so-called diathesis (a child is called atopic dermatitis). So, with the right lifestyle (healthy diet, minimizing stress, competent treatment) and the right side of parents atopic dermatitis is almost entirely goes to 13-14 years, that is to puberty. Can the case of aggravation, but food disappears dependence.

But if the wrong way of life, the course of the disease is getting worse and after 20-25 years becomes chronic. If a child provokes skin problems especially food allergies, digestive weakness, then in adulthood is more to do with the nervous system. There have coarser changes and skin reacts to any, even the most basic stress. And this is called atopic dermatitis.

What often provokes a reaction in a child?

Set stimuli fairly standard: cow’s milk, gluten, fish. Some children are allergic to chicken. Of course, there will be a reaction or not depends more on where the chicken raised and where you bought it – my grandmother in the village or in a city supermarket, where a lot of birds, pumped with antibiotics. The reaction may be not very chicken, but on what it fed on a poultry farm.

You can do blood tests that detect allergens. But the fact that the picture of allergy may vary, not only for life, but also from month to month. When safe conditions are allergic to a particular product can go, and if bad, on the contrary, can suddenly appear allergic to new products.

Adults, especially, should not exclude stress. Perform restorative procedures, pour cold water, swim, play sports. From a healthy way of life can not be avoided.

And what we know about eczema?

Neurodermatitis and eczema – a disease that can flow into one another. Eczema can be on a background of neurodermatitis. Sometimes allergic eczema, microbial eczema and sometimes – staphylococcal or candida, etc. For example, the eczema on his feet almost in 100% of cases linked to a fungal infection. However, and here the main factor – reduced immunity, so tempering procedures, and are shown here.

And is there such a thing as immunity of the skin? It often happens that people after a certain age or after some event occurs the whole bouquet of problems with the skin. This is associated with immunity?

Interest Ask. I once wrote his thesis on the general and local immunity of the skin. No such thing as local immunity, of course, is, and it is associated with the concept of general immunity. The correlation is straight. If the general immunity good, then, as a rule, and the local good. If the general immunity drops, and local immunity falls. In other words, if there were problems with the skin, it is necessary to go to the doctor and to understand.

Another common skin problem – it is acne. What treatments are the most effective to date?

Methods of treatment of acne a lot. But when a patient comes to the primary doctor’s appointment in the first place, it is necessary to examine. It is impossible to treat acne temporary means, need to understand the causes.

Causes of acne can be very different, for example, hormonal. In particular, a lot of girls are now hyperandrogenism – increased background androgens. If left untreated, it can lead to polycystic ovaries and infertility. Therefore, acne – it is a signal. The skin – this is always a mirror of the internal organs.
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In adult women may be a so-called stress acne on the background of chronic exhaustion of the adrenal cortex. And this is also the problem of hormonal plan. If we see a mixed form of acne – acne vulgaris, mixed with pink acne – it is necessary to examine the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas. Still, we always look at the location of acne. Acne on the forehead – it is necessary to clean up the intestines. On the cheeks, neck, shoulders, chest – hormones. Around the mouth, nose and chin – is usually the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract: stomach, gall bladder, pancreas.

Therefore, it should definitely be tested, otherwise the treatment will not be effective. For each person has his own medicine. This is usually some sort of complex, and if it is chosen correctly, then the effect will be wide. To date, there are very good local rehabilitation methods, such as neodymium laser. He not only sanitizes the skin, but also reduces the secretion of the sebaceous glands, and resolves stagnation conglomerates. But without a common treatment to do this is still not worth it.

And what do you advise for cellulite? Methods of getting rid of it is offered a million, but that actually works?

In general, what is cellulite? This distribution of fat on the female type. That is, one must understand that the reason is hormones. Therefore, a dermatologist should work here with a good endocrinologist, who will help the patient to solve his hormonal problems. Cellulite appears most often with age. Why men do not have cellulite? Because they have a high level of testosterone. Compared with women he is tall and old age. Therefore, in men cellulite it is very rare. And in women at the time when they start to fade female sex hormones, and testosterone, and so low, it begins to develop cellulite. At a young age is often a hormonal imbalance. Therefore endocrinologist urgently needed.

Overall a very well help various types of vacuum massage, starting with cans and ending with LPG. Very good results have given many mesotherapeutic methods. Another thing is that some of these procedures are quite painful, and treatment should be long, but it all works.

Let me say again: it is necessary to engage in sports, do contrasting water treatments. It is useful to do grinding. But it all works, if do it systematically – one-time effect will not allow the procedure. Miraculous transformation, like a fairy tale, from the irregular measures will not.

A cellulite creams? They do not give any effect?

Why, the effect will be. Now there are a lot of good tools. Cellulite is usually also present vascular disorders plan. Therefore, anti-cellulite products should contain local lipolitiki and drugs that dilates blood vessels. Well, if there is a part of horse chestnut, caffeine. But it is necessary to use them for a long time and systematically, every day.

Speaking of the vessels. Many are concerned about the spider veins – what to do with them?

They should be removed. In this case, just a good methods of laser photocoagulation or vessels. On the face, we have long and successfully use it photocoagulation. I think this is a good method – safe and really work. On the feet it is necessary to do research on the presence or absence of varicose veins. If you have varicose veins, you must first be operated.

There is a method such as sclerotherapy. But it is only used for the treatment of spider veins on the legs. His face can not be applied strictly due to the risk of thromboembolism.

“It makes no sense to spend money on expensive funds”

Please tell us about the basics of skin care. On the one hand, it’s a simple question, but on the other hand – there is a huge number of different drugs and so many of the recommendations, it is sometimes difficult to understand.

The most important thing, in my opinion – this is the right skin cleansing. It can be spread on dirty skin cream jar, he lies a thick layer, and will only get worse.

Most skin aging due to the fact that her horny scales accumulate. Children have such delicate skin because the stratum corneum is very thin and easily peeled. With age, these scales as if cemented, including under the influence of ultraviolet light, and does not peel yourself. Therefore it is very important to proper cleansing.

For different skin types is different – someone suitable cream for washing, someone gel for washing, and someone facial wash. But in any case, you should start with a good cleanser. Then the skin have something to refresh. To this end, suitable tonic. This is a very good tool for the care, which can be used during the day. There are sprays with thermal or micellar water, which can be used during the day, even over makeup. There sprays with hyaluronic acid, for example, the eyelids. Then you need to apply for a remedy. Most people have a combination skin, which means that first of all you need to moisturize the skin. The most banal and the right thing for everyone – it’s moisturizers.

And is there a difference between the mass market and luxury cosmetics? It makes sense to spend all the money on some superfunds?

Of course not. Because it will be the same mass market, but usually expensive, the expensive cream will still be “past.” So it is pointless spending. It is better to go for advice dermatocosmetology who understands what the skin, from which it is made and what it needs. And the doctor will select the cream, maybe not the most expensive, but the most correct.

In general, proper care helps to avoid many problems. To cope with the same acne, sometimes a fairly simple “umyvalki” with glycolic acid, which will flush sebaceous and prevent the formation of comedones ie blackheads and acne.

And if there are no obvious problems with the skin, at what age is the first time to pay a visit to the beautician?

It is believed that after 25 years there have histological signs of aging. Therefore, even if the obvious problems with the skin no need to go to a specialist. The woman may not be able in time to assess signs of approaching problems. Doctor looking at a person, can tell by what type he will age, what problems may arise with age. A good specialist will make the right program to delay aging. This does not mean that he will propose to “inflate” the lips or cheeks. This treatment, timely correction that seeks to slow down aging.

Therefore, when I hear the phrase: “Oh, I’m 50 years old and had plastic surgery will be the new” I always express great skepticism because it solve all the problems in one operation possible. If you have not saved your skin, and everything is already irretrievably lost, that plastic surgery can help, but it “complete” is a huge amount of procedures. This is plenty of time and a huge expense. And sometimes it does not help. It is much easier not to develop destructive processes. It is better to deal with the skin constantly, slowly, than at some point face the abyss.

And does it make sense to do gymnastics for the face?

Honestly, I do not believe in the exercises for the face. Some exercises that are advertised as facial muscle exercises, obviously worsen his condition. Simply, there are muscles in the face, which is pulled down, and there are muscles that pull up. As a rule, these exercises do not take into account.

I think we should just smile more. This is a very good tool to help literally everything.

As for the more serious methods of improving skin condition, especially injections of different drugs – how they studied? The same Botox can be considered absolutely safe?

Botulinum toxin was discovered in 1977. Thus it has been used for over 30 years. It is registered with the US FDA – Food and Drug Administration. This organization is very difficult test, which lasts even years and decades. Therefore, the drug which has passed through the FDA, – a preparation of the highest quality. And I can say that patients who I have personally observed and already about 20 years doing Botox injections, look very good, and we do not see any negative effects. Again, it all depends on correct and competent administration. Botox – it is also a medicine. If, for example, you take a vitamin and it will take two years – with you can happen a lot of bad things. In the words of Paracelsus, a cure poison differs only dose. Therefore, it is important to get into the hands of a good specialist.

The same applies to injection techniques. Now there are a lot of drugs. Naturally, we filter it through a diversity of their knowledge and try to take only proven medications that are registered on the territory of Russia. We take into account the experience of colleagues – is that on some drugs have to give, if someone from the doctors had a bad experience of their use. After all, we are not in a desperate situation are, for example, in the case of appendicitis, which, like it or not, it is necessary to do the surgery. the drug can be used in dermatology, as you can do. Safety first. In general, drugs that are used in dermatology, aesthetic medicine, generally safe.

Do I need the patient to comply with any security measures? If a woman beautician offers a new drug, how to understand, how much it is safe?

This is, first and foremost, a question of confidence in the doctor. And, of course, the patient should be informed about what procedure the doctor is doing it, in what sequence, what.

But man, far from the medicine is likely to be lost in this sea of information and advertising. Unfortunately, now it spreads very much distorted and simply false information. When I read the various promotional articles, I understand that if I was not an expert, would have believed, so attractively presented information. Therefore, all questions must be addressed with a doctor that you trust.

And the final question. You have already said that it is important for the skin all in the complex. But let’s say I’m a very busy person who wants to improve the condition of the skin, but can only do one thing. Should I start? Get enough sleep? Or build the diet? Or do some procedure?

First of all – to get enough sleep. Because it affects the hormones that affects everything else. So if there is a choice – to sleep or eat, you better get some sleep.

Interview Alain Khmilevskaya

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