Anton Makarenko – a legend not only of Soviet pedagogy. UNESCO named him and Maria Montessori teachers who laid the foundations of modern ideas about education. Can modern mom extract something useful from the Soviet classics almost a hundred years ago? It turns out, can.
Despite the fact that Makarenko – “pedagogical legend” and multiple award-winning, attitude to it the official Soviet pedagogy says at least the fact that at his funeral were not high officials from education. Incidentally, Krupskaya (among other things – the initiator of the creation of a society “Friend of Children”), a real friend of children Makarenko criticized, and its approach is called the “anti-Soviet.”
It is not surprising that the “Pedagogical Poem” was published not in the pedagogical, publishing and literary. And it really does not dry Manuals and real literature – with vivid characters, ironic narrator, lyrical digressions and intense plot. Education here – not a set of abstractions, but real people, fate, situation. Therefore, the book is very lively and easy to read.
For some, it will be useful?
The book will be useful for parents of teens , who are suddenly faced with the problems of adolescence.
For parents of many children in the book, too, there are many topical: how to organize children in the team, to solve conflicts between children, older children to delegate responsibility.
In addition, it seems to me, in the book there are many important points for the adoptive parents . It is associated with adoption are so many fears: that he was a spoiled, rude and steals – in general, difficult story. But Makarenko did not work with someone else, and young offenders – so far so difficult!
True, faithful reader some points can cause spiritual dissonance. Cute, clever, ironic author – a child of his time, which means – anti-clerical. No, Makarenko, of course, not a militant atheist, he just genuinely considers religion as a throwback, which is about to wither away of itself. He refers to the believers as innocuous geezer, “from the corner bag hit” and pretty hlebnuvshie “opium for the people.” Believers (described in the book and believes the employee, and believes the pupil) – Objects inexhaustible author natured irony.
Here is how responsive caretaker that students adhere to the believer the master: “What do you care to Jesus Christ, tell me, please? I’ll grab a otsedova, so not only to Christ, but also to Nicholas-saint prayers will be! If you oslobonila Soviet power from the gods, and rejoice in silence, rather than something that swagger priyshov here. ”
The situations in the book often push to talk “about popah”. Pupil-Komsomol member does not want to “marry the priests.” Another pupil Makarenko calmly sends an abortion. Once again, the colony moved not just anywhere, but in the territory of the ruined monastery, which the author says: “In Podvorkah much delayed various Reverend people: ex-priests and monks, novices, grooms and dependents, monastic cooks, gardeners and prostitutes.” However, Makarenko prohibits pupils interfere with worship in the temple preserved: “Just look, do not vandalize. We struggle with religion and belief rearrangement of life, not bullying. ”
Less theory, more practice
Standing books motif – the struggle with the Soviet semi-official pedagogy, officials and theorists. Actually, in this struggle, and because of the constant pressure of “educational community” Makarenko eventually abandons his beloved Gorky Colony and becomes a colony under the control of the NKVD.
Contradiction “theory and practice” – a major pain Makarenko, who even wrote a thesis on the theme “The crisis of modern pedagogy.” To his great regret, his excellent results – nothing compared to the Theory: ” The team have a wonderful. But that does not mean anything. Your horrible methods . ”
However, this fight Makarenko describes with irony, though sad, ” he said for a long time, this is the Chaikin. I listened and remembered Chekhov’s story, which describes the murder with the help of a paperweight; Then it seemed to me that it is not necessary to kill Chaikin, and should be flogged, not the rod or any tsarskorezhimnoy whip and ordinary belt, which ties up working pants. It would be ideologically. ”
What can be learned useful?
Now the shelves are filled up pedagogical theory. It is necessary to ask ourselves a question: how this theory applies to life? What do we want – pick up clever words or properly raise a child? If the second – it is better not to get involved in the theory and do not try to bring himself to her as a sacrifice, yet practical results leave much to be desired.
“In the meantime, Professor of Education, on specialist training, writes a note to the GPU or the NKVD: ” My boy robbed me several times, do not spend the night at home, writing to you with a request … hot. ” The question is: why security officers should be higher pedagogical techniques than the professor of pedagogy? “.
Discipline is very important for a child
One of the key “controversial” aspects approach Makarenko – a strict discipline. Today we would call it “the alignment of borders”, but for the then pedagogical thought it was pure sadism and mockery of the child. Makarenko disagrees and argues constantly with the ideas of “natural” education.
In “Heaven,” the child was seen as being filled with a special gas composition, the name of which did not even come up. … It was assumed (working hypothesis) that the gas that has the ability to self-development, not only need to disturb him. It was a lot of books have been written, but they are repeated, in essence, the sayings of Rousseau: “Treat your childhood with awe …” “Be careful not to interfere with nature …” The main tenet of this doctrine was that in the face of such reverence and attentiveness to the nature of the above gas must necessarily grow communist personality. In fact, in terms of pure nature grew only that naturally would grow, that is an ordinary field weeds.
What can be learned useful?
For me personally, it was surprising that those “superprogressivnye” ideas that seemingly are the pinnacle of today’s thoughts – were obsolete theory in the time of Makarenko. Personally, I thought that until recently was the only axiom discipline of pedagogy, and then came the good connoisseurs of baby shower and have an idea of the “free development”. It turned out that the idea was fashionable a hundred years ago. And a hundred years ago it did not work.
No physical punishment
Makarenko have a very original concept of punishment. Physical punishment does not apply ever, and the most terrible punishment – the conclusion in the study of Makarenko. Neither of which the cooler and the rod of the question, and he directs the colony for juvenile offenders. Penalties in the book – it is always a Shakespearean tragedy when the dark side of the child’s personality ( “a what?”) Struggles with the light side ( “yes, I have done wrong”). This is not sadism, when the teacher plays the role of retributive sword. For Makarenko punishment – it is a kind of recognition as “their own”, as an equal and responsible for their actions of man. Makarenko did not apply penalties to those who do not deserve the title of the colonist. And, nevertheless, regularly criticized for his “irrepressible cruelty.”
– You remind me of my duties. I came here to talk to you about the discipline system. It means that you do not deny that impose penalties? Dresses the … Then, they say, you do something that is practiced: the arrest … and say you are on bread and water plant?
– On bread and water is not black, but sometimes do not give dinner. And the outfits. And arrests can, of course, not in solitary confinement – in his office. You have the right information.
– Look, this is all but forbidden.
– In the law it is not forbidden, and writings of different hacks I do not read.
What can be learned useful?
Penalties are needed, but they must be used in strictly defined cases, and not become an instrument of building boundaries in a way to take revenge on the child for wrongdoing. It is useless to apply the punishment to those who see him only with hatred, without understanding its meaning. When it comes to the physical punishment of children, then this penalty is even more useless. This means that the adult has not been able to build a system of rules and build a trusting relationship with the child. No choice but to hit their child educated at home, in the family? But Makarenko did without battering with young offenders!
With the child need to communicate as an adult
From the point of view of Makarenko, the main task of education – to enter the child into a normal adult life. Learn to interact with others, to be part of society (why so often in the book of the word “team”), to make decisions, take responsibility for them. And it turns out that the children can take a very mature solutions – for example, to give up the new shirts for the purchase of cows.
The child should participate in the economic life of the family must learn to work: all the inmates of the colony work in the workshops, in the field. By the way, Makarenko said that the promotion material for the work of children there is nothing wrong – in fact it is also a model of adult life.
The main thing, according to Makarenko – a child to submit an example, then, and do not need “special treatment” to the children – they pulled over to those who will seem to them worthy to be followed:
– I already knew that the guys do not justify the intellectual conviction that children can love and appreciate a man who treats them lovingly that their caresses. I was convinced long ago that the greatest respect and great love by the children, at least those guys that were in the colonies appear in relation to other types of people. What we call a highly qualified, confident and clear knowledge, skill, art, golden hands, laconic, and the complete absence of the phrase, always ready to use – that’s what attracts children the most.
Makarenko shows how important it is for children to be treated as adults, not lisp and respect their boundaries :
Comrade Zoya took two fingers and rosy cheeks Sinenky drew his lips into a little pink bow:
– What an adorable baby!
Sinenky escaped from the gentle hands of Zoe, wiped his mouth with the sleeve shirts and hurt zakosil Zoya:
– Baby … see you .. And if I did .. It is not a child … A colonist at all?.
By the way, according to Makarenko, not only need to educate children, adults, but adults, too, can bring up … like children. In short, delicate pedagogy – is generally the norm of communication, for example, between a manager and a subordinate:
Kalina Ivanovich became the first object of my educational activity … His blue eyes sparkled with a love of life, he was so receptive and agile that I have not regretted it for a small amount of teaching energy. And I began his education in the early days, our first conversation.
What can be learned useful?
This approach is now, in my opinion, all is forgotten. Take modern orphanages Alexander Gezalov, social activist and a former orphan, always says that children should learn to monitor their own stuff, to fill the bed and wash the floor. But no, in an orphanage main thing now – to feed and “child labor” unanimously condemned. As a result, a child overwhelmed with gifts and overfed, but just do not know how to live alone, to manage their lives and somehow arrange it himself, without “orders from above”. Therefore, to break free, he indulges in all serious.
Alas, this is true for many children a family for which the parents are not an example, but something in between service personnel and prison guards. Makarenko simple principle that a child easily accept the rules, boundaries, discipline and work when he sees that his life depends on him.
The main slogan of the Gorky Colony – “Do not squeak” – stands for something like: “You’re a grown man, not Noah, and carry it responsibility for their actions.” Unfortunately, a common situation that I watched as a teacher – this is a “food baby”: nagging, bidding for homework or assessment, which in this case was a cleverly manipulated or lied. It seems to me that this is a direct result of education of children on the basis of “what a lovely child, give potereblyu for cheeks!”.
Before the children should be placed interesting goals
Pupils learn Makarenko hard because they want the workers’ school. Labor, because they want their prosperous economy, want to have the best and dress. Noticing the confusion and problems in the team, Makarenko understand: we must move on. Seeking for the pupils new ambitious goals, it is removed from the usual place in order to overcome the “stagnation”. This is not an abstract “motivation”, this is the real goal, which is easy to inspire children. Makarenko sure that good discipline as a way to achieve the goal. And if the target is not present, discipline is also beginning to bulge at the seams.
What can be learned useful?
Today, a common situation – is completely demotivate high school student who does not want and can not, who does not understand why the study and especially where he wants to do. And why bother to break away from the computer, online games and social networks. This is not surprising: if it before 15 years there were no goals, but only a reflex reaction to the shouts of the parents, you should not expect him to suddenly begin somewhere strive to supply a goal. He learned only whine and wriggle and wants only one thing – to him behind, and at the same time continued to regularly bring pasta with sausage.
Communicate more with children
It sounds corny, but the main recipe pedagogy Makarenko – live a life with children, one team. Work together, make decisions together, set goals together. It is too often parents try to delegate the education of anyone: babysitters, coaches, directors of circles – if only the child was attached, is separated from the natural adulthood. Do not be surprised, in this case, that you are with child – strangers to each other people, and to “educate” him you did not get. Communicate with your child, to love him, to delve into his problems, be in the full sense of the word, “one family” – this is the main principle of successful education for Makarenko.